The Godavari River is the second longest river in India after the river Ganges having its source at Tryambakeshwar, Maharashtra. It starts in Maharashtra and flows east for 1,465 kilometers (910 mi) emptying into the Bay of Bengal near Antarvedi in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh
The major tributaries of the river can be classified as the left bank tributaries which include the Purna, Pranhita, Indravati and Sabari River covering nearly 59.7% of the total catchment area of the basin and the right bank tributaries Pravara, Manjira, Manager together contributing 16.1% of the basin.
Pranhita is the largest tributary covering about 34% of its drainage basin. Though the river proper flows only for 113 km, by virtue of its extensive tributaries Wardha, Wainganga, Penganga, the sub-basin drains all of Vidharbaregion as well as the southern slopes of the Satpura Ranges.
Indravati is the 2nd largest tributary, known as the “lifeline” of the Kalahandi, Nabarangapur of Odisha & Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Due to their enormous sub-basins both Indravati and Pranhita are considered rivers in their own right. Manjira is the longest tributary and holds the Nizam Sagar reservoir.
Purna is a prime driver in the water-scarce Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
Flora and Fauna
• The Krishna Godavari Basin is one of the main nesting sites of the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtle. The Godavari is also a home to the endangered fringed-lipped carp (Labeo fimbriatus).
• The Coringa mangrove forests in the Godavari delta are the second largest mangrove formation in the country. Part of this has been declared as the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, renowned for reptiles.
• The Nandurmadmeshwar Bird Sanctuary is located along the backwaters of the Godavari river near Nashik at its confluence with Kadva River.
Godavari river basin is endowed with rich mineral deposits such as oil & gas, coal, iron, limestone, manganese, copper, bauxite, granite, laterite, etc.
The following are the few noted deposits:
• Krishna Godavari Basin, oil & gas
• Godavari Valley Coalfield, coal
• Wardha Valley Coalfield, coal
• Pench Kanhan Coalfield, coal
• Bailadila iron, iron
• Rowghat Mines, iron
• Araku hills, bauxite
• Malanjkhand, copper
• MOIL, manganese
Polavaram Project is a multi-purpose irrigation project which has been accorded national project status by the central government. This dam across the Godavari River is under construction located in West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh state and its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and the Odisha States also Polavaram Project is a multi-purpose irrigation project which has been accorded national project status by the central government. This dam across the Godavari River is under construction located in West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh state and its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha States also
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